Discuss the nature of communities under
He is much less effective and is widely but quietly criticized for favouring his own neighbourhood when differences arise. Most of the factors discussed here are not immediately evident.
The population history reflects the ancestral origins of the community. Exploitative competition is thought to be more common in nature, but care must be taken to distinguish it from apparent competition. Learning Objectives Distinguish between community ecology and ecosystem ecology Key Takeaways Key Points Community ecology focuses on the processes driving interactions between differing species and their overall consequences.
Community ecology pdf
Instead, they realized, they should probably work within the strongest decision-making unit in which people were willing to engage in group action. Historical factors Communities are a product of their past: current development activities take place against a historical backdrop. Cultural beliefs also play a profound role in people's sense of ownership of resources. While ethnicity is not necessarily a divisive factor in communities, it certainly can have a divisive effect. Mutualism[ edit ] Mutualism is an interaction between species in which both benefit. If one group more often women feels that its interests are not represented when decisions are made about rules for resource access or use, it is less likely to follow the rules and to participate in enforcing them. Holistic theory[ edit ] Clements developed a holistic or organismic concept of community, as it was a superorganism or discrete unit, with sharp boundaries. People's incentives to follow and participate in a community resource management plan will be stronger when they feel that their interests and concerns are represented in that plan.
The four main levels of study in ecology are the organism, population, community, and ecosystem. The populations of both species can be depressed by predation without direct exploitative competition.
In some cases it may be evident that the community or groups within the community is not well suited to undertake collective action at the present time.
Human beings are both natural and rational, with the result that the polis is natural even as it is formed out of the rational activity of human beings.
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