An analysis of proto fascism
An analysis of proto fascism
This is, however, an awkward alliance, he said. Many of the Freikorps later joined the Nazi regime. On the other hand, fascist leaders point to the decadence of those elites as proof of their ultimate feebleness in the face of an overwhelming popular will. They are: The primacy of the group. One element of fascism is collaboration with capitalists and the conservative elite. Fascist movements appeared in other European countries that were struggling after World War I or nervous about socialism. Mussolini's fascism mixed extreme nationalist expansion with social programs like women's suffrage and workers' power. National variants of fascism differ more broadly than national variants of, for instance, communism or capitalism, Paxton said.
James Gregor[ edit ] A professor of political science emeritus at the U. In the inter-war period it manifested itself primarily in the form of an elite-led "armed party" which attempted, mostly unsuccessfully, to generate a populist mass movement through a liturgical style of politics and a programme of radical policies which promised to overcome a threat posed by international socialism, to end the degeneration affecting the nation under liberalism, and to bring about a radical renewal of its social, political and cultural life as part of what was widely imagined to be the new era being inaugurated in Western civilization.
They turned to a military leader who had populist appeal.
In Germany and Italy, fascist government cartels determined many aspects of commerce, finance, agriculture and manufacturing, and made decisions according to what would further the state's power; however, they also allowed the conservative business elite to maintain property and increase their wealth. People felt desperate, ashamed and lost, he said. In the s, he led his Nazi Party to prominence through dramatic speeches, grand entrances and passionate rhetoric against Jews, Marxists, liberals and internationalists, Paxton wrote. In his essay " The Five Stages of Fascism ," published in in the Journal of Modern History, he defined seven feelings that act as "mobilizing passions" for fascist regimes. Paul Lensch was a socialist politician in the Reichstag who argued for central control of the economy and for militarism that became features of national socialism. The white nurse is similarly unthreatening. Further complicating matters, nonfascist governments have often mimicked elements of fascist regimes to give the appearance of force and national vitality, Paxton said. Guided by the principle of extreme nationalism, fascist regimes tend to perform similar actions, though the particulars differ, author George Orwell wrote in his essay "What Is Fascism? It supports the right of businesspeople to seek maximum profit without rules of regulations.
First and foremost, fascist regimes in the 20th century have required extreme national crises to gain popularity and power. Though fascism can be difficult to define, all fascist movements share some core beliefs and actions.
Johann Plengeanother early national socialist intellectual, saw national socialism as a German adaptation of socialism. As if women were always innocent. Fascist societies rhetorically cast their enemies as "at the same time too strong and too weak.
There are many definitions of fascism; some people describe it as a type or set of political actions, a political philosophy or a mass movement.
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